This glossary explains the common terms people use when discussing digital citizenship. Understand the terminology with these definitions.

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An ongoing and deliberate misuse of power in relationships. Bullying is repeated verbal, physical and/or social behaviour that intends to cause physical, social and/or psychological harm. It can happen in person or online. It can be obvious or hidden.

Bullying behaviour is repeated over time. Single incidents and conflict or fights between equals, whether in person or online, are not defined as bullying.


Cyber bullying

Any repeated harassment, insult or humiliation that occurs through electronic mediums. It can be via an email, smartphone, social networking site, instant messaging app, chat room, website or online game. Cyber bullying isn't one isolated nasty comment or post but a repeated action.

Cyber safety

The safe, responsible and informed use of digital media and technology. It's about keeping yourself and your information safe and secure. It's also about being respectful of other people online.


Digital citizenship

A good digital citizen is a person with the skills and knowledge to use digital technologies in a positive way. This means taking part in online society effectively and responsibly. It covers how you communicate with others, and how you create and consume content.


General capabilities

The broad knowledge, skills, behaviours and dispositions described within the Australian Curriculum. Ethical understanding and critical thinking are closely linked to good digital citizenship.


Image-based abuse 

When a person distributes an intimate, nude or sexually explicit image without the consent of those pictured. This includes genuine, altered and drawn pictures and videos. It can also include cartoon adaptations of an image.

While most image-based abuse is about sharing images without consent, it can also include the threat of sharing an image.



Sending sexually explicit or naked messages, photos or videos electronically. Sexting primarily happens via smartphones. It can occur via online message or chat function, or a phone text service.

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